The railroads are a huge source of jobs, revenue and growth for the country.
But in recent years, the federal government has been grappling with the effects of automation and a growing number of complaints of safety issues.
A new study by the American Federation of Government Employees shows that more than a third of the companies in the U.S. are losing at least 10% of their workforce each year.
And that number is growing.
The report released Monday by the union shows that railroads have lost more than 1.5 million workers since the beginning of the 21st century, and about 4.5% of the total jobs lost in the country since 1980.
It found that the loss of more than 3.5m jobs in 2017 alone represents a 4.4% decline in employment.
“While the number of jobs lost has fallen dramatically in recent decades, the decline in overall employment has not,” said John B. Barchard, the union’s president.
“There is no evidence that this decline has been offset by increased productivity.”
The report found that nearly half of all the jobs lost were in the transportation industry, with the average hourly wage for workers employed by railroads being $11.90.
A quarter of the jobs were in construction and equipment, while less than one-third of those jobs were associated with railroad maintenance or repairing.
About half of the railroad workers who lost their jobs were women.
The percentage of women employed in the rail industry is down more than 30 percentage points from the late 1990s, when it was more than 60%.
The study found that a quarter of railroads had laid off workers.
The union said that was partly because of a drop in federal job-loss payments.
It is also due to a combination of new regulations and an increased number of lawsuits and other claims.
Some railroads say that, as automation and technology has improved, the industry is getting stronger.
But the report said that more automation in the manufacturing and distribution chains of the industry has not been translating into more good-paying jobs.
The study said that the decline of manufacturing jobs was driven largely by the “death spiral” of companies such as UPS and FedEx that have struggled to keep up with the demand for their products.
UPS, which has struggled to retain the jobs of truck drivers and delivery drivers, lost more jobs last year than the year before.
The report also found that fewer people were hired for those jobs than they had been a decade ago.
The number of railworkers in the United States fell by 4.3% from a decade earlier, to 1.4 million, the report found.
In addition, the number who were laid off by the railroads dropped by 4% from 2016 to 2017, to more than 6.5 percent of all workers employed in railroads.
The railroads account for a quarter million jobs across the country, and they are still a key source of income for the nation.
About a third are in the industry.
About 4 million people work in the nation’s railroads, according to the American Railroad Builders Association.
The Federal Railroad Administration said that in the last year, it had approved more than 200,000 proposals to improve or expand safety, safety equipment and other requirements for railroads and other transportation employers.
It said that most of those proposals were being approved in the public interest.