Transport systems across Europe are often the most dangerous in the world, with trains regularly carrying up to a dozen tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
With the threat of climate change now a real threat, Europe has decided to look at how to reduce the amount of CO2 emitted by rail transport, and to do so by investing in a new generation of transport technology.
The aim of the project is to develop a carbon capture and storage (CCS) system that could be used by trains and buses, and could be a game-changer in terms of how transport systems in Europe are going to change over the next few decades.
A lot of the research that has been done in the UK has been focussed on electric rail transport systems, but a lot of research is still going on in Europe on the carbon dioxide emission potential of conventional rail vehicles.
The first stage of the carbon capture technology, known as the High-Performance Carbon Capture and Storage (HPCCS) (HPCCS), is currently being developed in Switzerland, where the company LPGA is based.
LPGAs, or Low-Power Gases, are a form of combustion that can capture carbon dioxide and convert it into fuel and electricity.
It can also store it.
The idea behind the HPCCS is that if a train or bus is to travel at high speed, the fuel used to run the train or buses would be a form that is carbon-neutral.
That is, the amount that is emitted would be less than that which is stored.
The project is a collaboration between the Swiss Federal Railways (BVN) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), which is helping to fund the project.
It is expected that the first of the technology systems to be deployed will be on trains in the near future.
The researchers say that by developing the technology, the trains themselves could be carbon neutral.
“This project will enable us to create a new technology that is a technology platform for a new class of carbon capture, storage and reuse technology,” says lead researcher Jens Wieringa from LPGAS (Light-Gases and High-Performing Electrolysis).
“In the long run, we hope that the technology will become a viable transport technology for freight transport and other sectors.”
The new technology, called LPGasC, will use the CO2 captured from the CO 2 emissions from the trains as a raw material for the creation of high-performance carbon-capture materials.
It also involves developing a new type of electrode for use on the train itself.
The new system is designed to operate at a very low temperature, at temperatures between 2 and 4°C.
It will be able to store carbon for a long time.
It has been designed to be able transport a tonne of CO 2 and a ton of hydrogen fuel and a hydrogen fuel cell.
These materials are combined to form an electrode that will then be able produce electricity when the train needs electricity.
The energy generated will be stored in a fuel cell, and when the fuel cell is used, the energy is stored in the battery.
The technology has been developed in partnership with a company called Carbon Energy Solutions (CES).
It has developed an electrode with a capacity of around 2.6 terawatt-hours, which is similar to the energy stored in cars.
The LPGaC system is being tested in the Swiss Alps and Switzerland, which will be the first time that the high-power carbon capture system has been tested on a train.
It may not be the only solution for reducing the CO 3 emissions of trains, but it could be one of the most effective.
“For decades, the most commonly used transport method for CO 2 capture was the coal-fired locomotive, which had the capacity to transport about 6 tonnes of CO 3 a day,” explains Dr Wieringsa.
“As coal prices collapsed and CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere rose, coal was replaced by natural gas and now, the coal industry is one of Europe’s largest sources of CO-2.”
The LPSC technology is being developed to make the trains carbon-sensible.
In fact, the company has already been working with a German manufacturer to develop an electric train for use in Europe.
“With the introduction of electric trains in Switzerland and elsewhere, we are currently developing the first prototype train,” says Dr Wiersa.
He says that the prototype train will be equipped with an internal combustion engine, which can be operated at a much lower temperature than coal-burning locomotives.
The carbon capture process is a very straightforward process.
“There are three main components to the process,” says Jens.
“The first component is the electrode, which we have developed and designed for use with electric trains.
The second is the fuel storage unit, which consists of a battery and a capacitor.
The third component is a