A new report finds that rail transport costs have risen as pollution increases.
The study, published Wednesday in the journal Environmental Science and Technology, finds that pollution on the rails is expected to cost an average of $10.5 billion a year.
The cost of air pollution on a railroad has been rising since 1980, when an average railroad cost $6.3 billion a day.
The average rail cost increased about 30 percent annually from 1982 to 2010, according to the study.
The study also found that air pollution costs are rising at a faster rate than other types of pollution, such as greenhouse gases.
“We have the most expensive rail in the world and we are not paying for it,” said Dr. Steven Stromberg, the study’s lead author.
“That is really alarming.”
In 2010, a study by the environmental advocacy group Greenpeace estimated that pollution in U.S. railcars costs the economy $3.5 trillion annually.
In a report published in December, Greenpeace estimated rail costs to be $3 billion per year.
And in a March 2014 report from the U.K.-based Transport and Environment Research Centre, rail pollution accounted for about a third of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions in 2013, the most recent year available.
Since 2010, emissions from rail have risen at a rate of almost one-quarter of a percent per year, according the study, which was based on a survey of more than 1,000 respondents.
Despite the cost of pollution on trains, rail operators continue to spend billions of dollars on pollution control.
In March, the Washington-based Union Pacific Railway Company paid $100 million to settle a federal class action lawsuit over its rail operations.
The settlement also required the company to spend $7 million to reduce its air pollution by at least 90 percent by 2020.